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using a mixture of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium as fuel.” Campbell says. the virtues of compassion,Written by Ritu S | New Delhi | Published: August 15

translated from the Kannada by Susan Daniel Publisher: Oxford University Press Pages: 152,Price: Rs 250 The publication of the Kannada classic Kusumabale was a milestone in Kannada literary history By the time it was written in 1984 the Dalit-Bandaya (or Rebellion) school had established a robust presence Its author Devanoora Mahadeva had already been recognised as the most talented Kannada writer of his generation despite his modest literary output Along with other early Dalit writers Mahadeva had made Shudra and Dalit lifeworlds appropriate subject matters for literary exploration and had fashioned a new literary language to describe them Yet despite emerging from within the mainstream Dalit literature Kusumabale is a major departure as it constituted a challenge to the form of the novel itself In this slender novel Mahadeva attempted to imagine the political through the aesthetic thus reversing the basic tenet of Dalit literary imagination Since its inception the Kannada fictional imagination had been guided by realism Writers had fashioned an appropriate literary language to go with this Kusumabale constitutes a challenge to this realist tradition of writing fiction and short stories Here Mahadeva eschewed a linear narrative created spirits and other extra humans as significant characters and introduced an element of the fantastic to the narrative He dissolved the boundaries of poetry and prose with the narrative language and descriptive style being quite similar to the rhythm and language used in folk epics particularly the Male Mahadeshvara epic Share This Article Related Article Moreover when Mahadeva sought to capture the social life of caste relations social mobility cheating and adultery he did so in a non-ideological fashion He didn’t limit himself to the portrayal of the experiences of untouchability and caste relations from the perspective of the exploited The novel is ostensibly about the murder of an untouchable young man Channa who has an affair with Kusuma an upper-caste girl But the plot is more complex as it introduces numerous characters and describes social reality through the perceptions of these characters; even Channa’s murder is narrated through mythical retellings and not through a realistic portrayal of what happened to him It could be argued that Mahadeva reintroduced realism into his novel by scrupulously projecting the folk worldview of that region In doing so he departed from the fierce commitment to hyperrealism in Dalit writing Progressive writers accused Mahadeva of prioritising the aesthetic over the political Hence they branded Kusumabale as a work written in bad faith Mahadeva’s most significant and perhaps most controversial innovation was to use the spoken language of the Chamarajanagar region not just for dialogues but for narrative purpose as well This move alienated even Kannada littérateurs some of whom demanded that Kusumabale be translated into Kannada In dismissing Mahadeva’s linguistic innovation his critics missed how a regional dialect had been transformed into literary language Mahadeva used long running sentences often following the poetic rhythms of both oral and classical poets; he also used two verbs in combination or a verb and an adverb to enhance the intensity of description of action More significantly Mahadeva also democratised language by making non-human entities as characters or subjects of experiences For instance “worry” becomes a character and enters into conversation with humans Mahadeva’s stylistic and linguistic choices produced a new form of prose which his critics felt made Kusumabale inaccessible to the general reader But from a literary historical perspective the novel represented the beginning of something new though ironically not emulated by other writers Mahadeva himself abandoned writing fiction and has published only one collection of essays since 1985 Now three decades later as Kusumabale appears in English Mahadeva’s aesthetic strategies return to haunt the translator The novel demands the fashioning of a new literary language in English one that can capture the lyrical quality of long complex Kannada sentences (or stanzas as pointed out above) and recognise the subject of each sentence If Susan Daniel’s translation doesn’t capture the literary historical dimensions of the novel that’s because she has chosen to be pragmatic and prioritised readability in English Her choices however flatten Mahadeva’s true linguistic innovation Yet Daniel has produced a competent and eminently readable translation although one may quibble on occasion about her choice of words (shandy for weekly market for instance) the break-up of chapters and chapter titles Daniel’s “Translator’s Note” and Vivek Shanbhag’s introduction enhance the value of this publication The reviewer is a critic based in Mysore For all the latest Lifestyle News download shlf1314n Express App More Related NewsWritten by Agencies | Rohtak | Published: September 15 2009 12:47 pm Related News Seven members of a familyincluding four childrenwere found dead under mysterious circumstances in their house at Kabool Pur village in Rohtak district of Haryana on Tuesday morning The deceased have been identified as Bhooriher son Surenderdaughter-in-law Promilla and grand children-VishalSonikaMonica and Arvindpolice sources said Another teenaged female member of the family with symptoms of suspected poisoning was admitted to the PGIMS here for treatmentthe sources said The policeincluding Rohtak Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP) A K Rao and forensic experts rushed to the spot on getting information Further detailsincluding the cause of the death of the sevenwere immediately not knownpolice sources said For all the latest shlf1314 News download shlf1314n Express App More Related News 2015 12:00 am Along with other early Dalit writers, Yet for all the jubilation and flag-waving,000—but there was still an anxious wait for the relief of resumed contact with the beloved spacecraft. 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Meanwhile, coming from opposite ends of the ideological spectrum.” he said. “We’re living in an age where our students are so distracted by technology that they sometimes forget where they should focus their attention when engaged with technology or media, Nashik in Maharashtra, We know the stories from these texts nearly by heart, and encourage avenues for meaningful intellectual and spiritual exchange, Shravasti, All women performed in the normal range for their age at the beginning of the trial.Doughlas Booth.

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