The biodigester installed in 2011 at the Siyazama Community Garden in Khayelitsha, a township outside of Cape Town, by UCT’s Engineers Without Borders group and African Green Energy.(Image: Bill Corcoran, Irin)MEDIA CONTACTS • Ben ParkerDirector, Irin News+254 20 762 2147 or +254 733 860 082Source: Irin NewsWith the number of people in Africa’s urban centres expected to grow rapidly in the next few decades, municipal waste and its disposal could pose a variety of logistical and public health challenges.Now, researchers at South Africa’s University of Cape Town are examining how to convert organic waste into biogas, which would alleviate disposal problems and help poor residents, particularly those in informal settlements, save on energy costs.The number of people living in Cape Town is expected to grow almost 60% in the next three decades, according to a 2010 demographics projection (PDF, 733KB) by the city. Meanwhile, energy prices, including the cost of electricity, have gone up at least 50% in the last four years.University of Cape Town (UCT) researcher Rethabile Melamu told Irin: “Up to 70% of organic municipal waste could be used to create biogas. We are going to set up a biogas project near an abattoir and use the leftover blood and animal waste to create fuel that can be used for cooking and heating water.” Green electricityThe process of turning waste into gas involves the breakdown of organic waste in an oxygen-free environment called a biodigester – usually a large rubber bladder or a concrete structure, depending on the scale of the project – which operates like a human stomach.This produces methane gas that can be siphoned off and used for cooking and to replace paraffin, an increasingly expensive fuel commonly used in informal settlements.In June 2012, a grant of R2.5-million (US$305 000) was provided by the National Research Foundation to UCT for small biogas demonstration projects.UCT partnered with the NGO Engineers Without Borders (EWB) and African Green Energy, a private company, to install a rubber bladder biodigester at the Siyazama Community Garden in the community of Khayelitsha near Cape Town, in 2011.EWB volunteer Francois Petousis said it cost about R10 120 ($1 200) for the raw materials and labour to install the equipment, which has a 10-year lifespan. The community gardeners grow vegetables and use the organic waste to fuel the system.Cynthia Nkqayi, a group leader at the garden that supplies vegetables to Abalimi, an urban agriculture association, believes the biodigester is a great addition to their operation because they use gas for cooking every day. It has also saved them money.“We used to buy about R300 [$36] worth of gas every two months for cooking, so it is a big saving for us to have the biogas here, as it is free,” said Nkqayi.There are similar pilot projects underway across the country.Melamu, who has researched biogas since 2000, believes it is not a fuel that could replace traditional energy sources, but that it should be added to a mix of renewable energy sources like solar and wind power.“Biogas system installations have creased steadily since 2000, and now there are thousands of systems … around the country,” she said.The company Bio2Watt, for example, aims to build and operate commercially viable biogas plants throughout South Africa. These plants will use waste streams to produce green electricity. South Africa slow to catch up The government is now considering whether it should supply biogas to the poor.David Mahuma of the South African National Energy Development Institute (Sanedi), which has been asked to examine the question, said, “Biogas becomes a good energy provider if you have the biomass resources to create it. But we are only beginning to assess its potential, and are still at the costing stage in terms of looking at its viability at a national level.”Last year, the government announced that renewable energy should make up 42% of new capacity.But despite the suitability of biogas as a fuel source for low-income families and agricultural businesses, South Africa has been slower than other African countries to embrace biogas.The country’s energy infrastructure is more developed than those in Kenya and Ethiopia, where biogas production has secured a firm foothold.Dutch development agency, SNV, which has been involved in setting up domestic biogas programmes in Nepal since 1989, has partnered with national bodies in nine African countries to roll out biogas initiatives under its ‘Africa Biogas Partnership Programme’ framework.This market-orientated programme took off at the end of 2008, with Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania and Uganda coming on board. It aims to reach 70 000 households via a variety of different biogas projects by 2013. Cameroon has been developing its own programme since 2009, and Benin since 2010.UCT’s Melamu said the potential for biogas in South Africa’s urban areas is “huge when you see what has been achieved in countries like India, where biogas production is very well-developed. In India’s Pune City, municipal waste is turned into biogas and used to power the urban street lights. There really are numerous ways to use it,” she said. Urban and rural energy needs The dichotomous nature of South Africa’s economy – which has highly developed industries and living standards alongside widespread poverty – coupled with rising fuel and electricity costs mean there is a huge need for affordable energy sources both in urban and rural areas.Government statistics show that 3.7-million people in South Africa, predominately in rural areas, currently do not have access to electricity, and many more still use traditional biomass for cooking.The 2008 South Africa National Household Biogas Feasibility Study, produced by Agama Energy, an engineering consultancy, concluded that at the timethere were at least 310 000 households – 9.5% of South Africa’s rural households – showing technical viability for participation in a rural biogas programme.For a household to be viable, it needs access to enough animal or plant waste to feed a biodigester.
South Africa has the largest antiretroviral (ARV) treatment programme in the world, which gives people living with the virus the chance to live full and healthy lives. Here’s more on where to get treatment.Babies whose mothers are HIV positive are tested at six weeks using the HIV PCR method, according to Unicef South Africa. (Image: Unicef South Africa, Flickr)Brand South Africa reporterThere are 3.4-million HIV positive people on antiretroviral (ARV) treatment in South Africa today, according to the government.With the 2016 International Aids Conference taking place from 18 to 22 July in Durban, we bring you a list of free health and social support services for South Africans affected by HIV and Aids. These can help HIV-positive people and their families deal with their situation a lot better.State hospitals and clinicsAsk staff at your local clinic or hospital about the following services if you are HIV-positive or if you know someone living with HIV/Aids.Testing and counsellingThe first step is to get tested for HIV. Knowing your status will help you get the treatment you need. Pregnant women should get tested every three months.The HIV test is provided for free at government clinics.You can also get tested at a local health department office, at your local doctor, at family planning clinics and at sites specially set up for HIV testing. The results of your HIV test will be kept secret.Aids Foundation South Africa advises that you wait for three months after possible infection before you get an HIV test.HIV and pregnancyIf you are HIV-positive and pregnant, your doctor or staff at your local clinic can give you advice on how to make sure the virus is not passed on to your baby.Treatment and medicationIf you are HIV-positive but can’t afford to pay for ARV medicines, you can go to state hospitals and clinics for help. All medicines – the antiretroviral pills and vitamins – are available at government hospitals and clinics.People who are very sick can be treated there, or will be referred to another hospital for treatment.Support groupsIf you need advice and support for living with HIV, counsellors and nurses at your clinic can refer you to a support group.Home-based care and help for familiesAsk at your clinic about how people with HIV and Aids can get treatment for the disease at home. This is known as home-based care.The families of HIV-positive people can be trained on how to care for their loved one if he or she becomes very sick. Clinic staff can also tell families where to go to get training on how to give proper home-based care to people with Aids.Family members over the age of 12 can be trained in basic hygiene, basic nutrition, bed baths and dealing with blood, simple infections and body fluids. For example, covering your hands with a plastic bag when dealing with blood can stop you getting infected.Poverty alleviationThe department of social development is the go-to place to find out about food parcels. A social worker will look into your situation and give you advice on what to do.The government also gives out different grants through the South Africa Social Security Agency. You need different documents for different social grants. A social worker will help you with this. On your first visit you must take your identity document, or ID, with you.The documents you might need to apply for a grant are:IDMedical certificateProof of income and assets. This proof can be a wage slip, shop receipts, your UIF card, bank account statements, or your pension book. If you have no documents to prove your income, you must to go to a police station to write an affidavit explaining why you don’t have the documents. The police will give you advice on how to do this.Marriage certificateDeath certificate of parentsBirth certificates of children you are looking afterAffidavit from birth mother if the child’s real parents are still alive. This must explain why you are looking after another person’s child. It must also say that the parents agree to you looking after the child.Letter from your employer stating your salaryOther supportHere are some of the other places where you can find support:Caprisa – The Centre for the Aids Programme of Research in South Africa (Caprisa) provides comprehensive programmes of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support to those affected. One of their projects educates teenagers on protection against HIV/Aids. They also hold support groups for HIV- positive people.Watch Caprisa beneficiaries in KwaZulu-Natal talk about how the organisation helps them:Nacosa is a network of over 1 500 civil society organisations and individuals working together against HIV/Aids and TB in southern Africa. To find the contact details and address of an organisation working in your area, you can visit their website.Health4Men is an awareness project targeted at gay and bisexual men. The Health4Men initiative and the sexual health campaign We the Brave were founded by the Anova Health Institute in partnership with the Department of Health. Visit their websites to get information on HIV/Aids, and to find clinics specifically for gay or bisexual people.Volunteer to helpIf you want to be a volunteer, you can contact the Department of Health or first aid training organisations. They can help with formal training like basic first aid care.Volunteers can also work hand-in-hand with other institutions like religious groups, clinics and the Department of Social Development.Dealing with deathPeople who are extremely sick and likely to die should prepare for their death. Things to do include naming guardians for their children, writing out a will and testament, sorting out any bank accounts and insurance, and creating a memory box for their children and other loved ones.People who can’t afford a funeral for a family member should ask their municipalities and religious organisations for help. They should work together to give the deceased a pauper’s burial. This is a free funeral paid by the municipality.Sources: South African Government News Agency, Education and Training Unit and Aids Foundation South Africa.Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest 2016 Trade TalkLeo Bose, AFS Marketing Manager for Case IH, joined Ohio Ag Net’s Joel Penhorwood to talk about precision farming and its exciting possibilities down the road.161110_TradeTalk_CaseIH_LeoBoseCASE IH Planter Marketing Manager Tony McClelland commented on the latest updates on the 2000 Series Early Riser planter with factory-fit Precision Planting technology.161110_TradeTalk_CaseIH_TonyMcClellandTalking tillage with Tillage Marketing Manager Chris Lursen.161110_TradeTalk_CaseIH_ChrisLursen2015 Trade TalkThe Axial Flow technology from Case IH is getting some nice upgrades as the Ohio Ag Net’s Ty Higgins found of from Case IH’s Kelly Kravig.Case IH Kelly Kravig Axial FlowLeo Bose visited with Ty about Case IH’s Advanced Farming Systems.Case IH Leo Bose PrecisionCase IH’s Mitch Kaiser tells Ty that there is a lot to celebrate when it comes to new 2016 Steiger enhancements as the company celebrates 20 years of tracks.Case IH Mitch Kaiser Tracks
Arsenal deliver Reiss Nelson updateby Paul Vegasa day agoSend to a friendShare the loveArsenal have posted an update on youngster Reiss Nelson.Nelson picked up a knee injury against Standard Liege earlier this month.And the Gunners says he’ll be ready to return to training in November.The club’s statement read: “Left knee (ligament injury). Sustained during the Standard Liege (h) match on October 3.”Aiming to return to full training in November. About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say
MIAMI, FL – OCTOBER 06: A general view of Hard Rock Stadium before the game between the Miami Hurricanes and the Florida State Seminoles at Hard Rock Stadium on October 6, 2018 in Miami, Florida. (Photo by Mark Brown/Getty Images)The state of Florida showed up big at this afternoon’s Under Armour All-American Game. Florida State commits accounted for 21 of victorious Team Highlight’s 27 points. The other six came on a phenomenal one-handed catch by Dionte Mullins, a four-star wide receiver committed to his hometown Hurricanes.Miami commit @dionte_mullins8 makes an insane catch at the UA @AllAmericaGame https://t.co/nyEsN8szIN— Scout Recruiting (@scoutrecruiting) January 2, 2016Mullins committed to Al Golden back on July 4, 2014, and will take his official visit to The U on January 15. He’s definitely a guy that Mark Richt will want to hold on to.
Quinn Pitcock Last week: 3-0 Overall: 9-4 Picks: Ohio State, Wisconsin, Alabama, Oregon Justin Zwick Last week: 3-0 Overall: 11-2 Picks: Ohio State, Wisconsin, Alabama, Oregon Zack Meisel Last week: 1-2 Overall: 6-7 Picks: Ohio State, Michigan State, Alabama, Stanford Dallas Lauderdale Last week: 3-0 Overall: 9-4 Picks: Ohio State, Wisconsin, Alabama, Oregon James Laurinaitis Last week: 3-0 Overall: 9-4 Picks: Ohio State, Wisconsin, Alabama, Oregon Last week, Justin Zwick, James Laurinaitis, Dallas Lauderdale and Quinn Pitcock all predicted the same winners for the three games of the week. Lantern sports editor Zack Meisel opted to be different. He was the only participant to choose Arkansas over Alabama and West Virginia over LSU. Poor decision. Meisel went 1-2, while the other four completed a perfect week at 3-0. This week, it’s more of the same, as Zwick, Laurinaitis, Lauderdale and Pitcock all envision the same outcome for the four games selected. Zwick leads the way with an 11-2 mark, while Lauderdale, Laurinaitis and Pitcock sit at 9-4. THIS WEEK’S GAMES: No. 2 Ohio State @ Illinois No. 11 Wisconsin @ No. 24 Michigan State No. 7 Florida @ No. 1 Alabama No. 9 Stanford @ No. 4 Oregon
Senior defenseman Joe Meurer (11) tracks an opposing player during a game against Marquette Feb. 22 at the Woody Hayes Athletic Center. OSU won, 11-7.Credit: Brett Amadon / Lantern photographerAfter picking up its first win in almost a month, the Ohio State men’s lacrosse team (2-5, 1-0) welcomes No. 7 Notre Dame (3-2, 2-0) to town, a team the Buckeyes haven’t beaten since 2004.Junior defenseman Evan Mulchrone said this game provides a big opportunity for OSU to earn a quality victory as well as getting a chance to take down a team no current Buckeye has done in his career.“Right now at this point in the season we are just taking it one game at a time,” Mulchrone said. “This is a big one on our schedule. They’re not in our conference but they are a team that we haven’t beaten in years so we are trying to get the opportunity to get back at them for once in my career.”Playing without its leading scorer in junior midfielder Jesse King as well as starting goaltender Greg Dutton, OSU was able to snap a three-game skid Friday with a 10-7 win against ECAC opponent Bellarmine.Never trailing throughout the contest, the Buckeyes got big performances from sophomore attackman Carter Brown, who had five points, as well as freshman goaltender Nick Doyle, who made nine saves in his first collegiate game.OSU coach Nick Myers said the Buckeyes will need more of the same on the offensive end Tuesday if they are going to score on a Notre Dame defense yielding only 8.80 goals per game.“It’s important that we run our offenses, that we turn scoring opportunities into shots on cage, and make sure that we generate quality opportunities,” Myers said. “They’re defense is excellent. They have great goalie play, they are very well schooled, very well prepared … but I think for us, it’s executing our schemes, focusing on taking care of the ball and making sure we end up with shots not turnovers, and then doing a great job on the defensive end of making our stops.”Playing in the ACC, arguably the toughest conference in college lacrosse, Notre Dame has played four teams currently ranked in the top 20 in its first five games.However, after splitting their first four contests of the season, the Fighting Irish picked up a convincing win over No. 8 Virginia, 18-9, March 16.Leading the way for Notre Dame was sophomore attackman Matt Kavanagh with four goals and six points. Only once this season has the Rockville Centre, N.Y., native been held to fewer than five points in a game.Senior defenseman Joe Meurer said OSU cannot expect to stop Kavanagh every time, but his coaches have a gameplan in place which Meurer expects will limit his chances.“We’re going to stick to our scheme,” Meurer said. “We have a really good game plan going into the game. Matt’s a great player, he’s very dynamic, but we are going to play with seven like we do every week and try to limit him as much as possible. He might get a play or two here and there, but we are going to do everything we can to limit him.”This is the first meeting between the two teams since March 2013, a 9-4 victory for Notre Dame.Game time is set for 4 p.m. Tuesday inside Jesse Owens Memorial Stadium.